Letterature lingua straniera

Le fate del Malabar PDF

The Darien scheme was an unsuccessful attempt by the Kingdom of Scotland to become a world trading nation by establishing a colony called “Caledonia” on the Isthmus of Panama on the Gulf of Darién in the late 1690s. 1695-97 saw catastrophic famine in present-day Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Norway and Sweden plus an estimated two million deaths in France and Northern Italy. A series of domestic conflicts, including the 1639-51 Wars of the Three Kingdoms and unrest related to religious differences le fate del Malabar PDF 1670-1690 exhausted the people and diminished their resources.


Författare: Nicola Tenani.

The Darien chest, which held the money and documents of the Company of Scotland. Now in the National Museum of Scotland in Edinburgh. In the face of opposition by English commercial interests, the Company of Scotland raised subscriptions in Amsterdam, Hamburg and London for the scheme. For his part, King William II of Scotland and III of England had given only lukewarm support to the whole Scottish colonial endeavour. One reason for English opposition to the Scheme was the then prevalent economic theory of Mercantilism, a concept as widespread and accepted then as capitalism is today.

England was also under pressure from the London-based East India Company, who were keen to maintain their monopoly over English foreign trade. It therefore forced the English and Dutch investors to withdraw. The Scots’ original aim of emulating the East India Company by breaking into the lucrative trading areas of the Indies and Africa was forgotten, and the highly ambitious Darien scheme was adopted by the company. Many former officers and soldiers, who had little hope of other employment, eagerly joined the Darien project.

Leith to avoid observation by English warships in July 1698, with around 1200 people on board. A New Map of the Isthmus of Darien in America, The Bay of Panama, The Gulph of Vallona or St. Michael, with its Islands and Countries Adjacent”. In A letter giving a description of the Isthmus of Darian, Edinburgh: 1699. Agriculture proved difficult and the local Indians, though hostile to Spain, were unwilling to trade for the combs and other trinkets offered by the colonists. Most serious was the almost total failure to sell any goods to the few passing traders who put into the bay. With the onset of summer the following year, malaria and fever led to many deaths.

Eventually, the mortality rate rose to ten settlers a day. After just eight months, the colony was abandoned in July 1699, except for six men who were too weak to move. The deaths continued on the ships, and only 300 of the 1200 settlers survived. A desperate ship from the colony had called at the Jamaican city of Port Royal, but it was refused assistance on the orders of the English government, which feared antagonising the Spanish. In August 1699, the Olive Branch and Hopeful Beginning with 300 settlers arrived in Darien to find ruined huts and 400 overgrown graves.