Filosofia e psicologia

XIII mystery. Vol. 11 PDF

Soon after he arrived in Switzerland in 1902, 18 years old and looking for work, Benito XIII mystery. Vol. 11 PDF was starving and penniless. All he had in his pockets was a cheap nickel medallion of Karl Marx.


Författare: Luc Brunschwig.

Volumi pubblicati di XIII: “Il giorno del sole nero”; “Là dove va l’indiano…”; “Tutte le lacrime dell’inferno”; “Spads”; “Codice rosso”; “Il dossier Jason Fly”; “La notte del 3 agosto”; “Tredici contro uno”; “Per Maria”; “El Cascador: Tre orologi d’argento”; “La sentenza”; “L’inchiesta”; “Segreto militare”; “Sguinzagliate i cani!”; “Operazione Montecristo”; “L’oro di Massimiliano”; “La versione irlandese” (disegni: Giraud); “L’ultimo round”; “Il giorno del Mayflower” (I. Jigounov – Y. Sente); “L’esca” (I. Jigounov – Y. Sente); “Ritorno a Greenfalls” (I. Jigounov – Y. Sente); “Il messaggio del martire” (I. Jigounov – Y. Sente). XIII Mystery: La mangusta”; “Irina”; “Little Jones”; “Il colonnello Amos”; “Steve Rowland”; “Billy Stockton”; “Betty Barnowski”; “Martha Shoebridge”; “Felicity Brown”; “Calvin Wax”.

Following a spell of vagrancy, Mussolini found a job as a bricklayer and union organizer in the city of Lausanne. Quickly achieving fame as an agitator among the Italian migratory laborers, he was referred to by a local Italian-language newspaper as “the great duce of the Italian socialists. The great duce’s fame was so far purely parochial. Upon his return to Italy, young Benito was an undistinguished member of the Socialist Party. He took seriously Marx’s dictum that the working class has no country, and vigorously opposed the Italian military intervention in Libya.

The shift in Socialist Party control was greeted with delight by Lenin and other revolutionaries throughout the world. From 1912 to 1914, Mussolini was the Che Guevara of his day, a living saint of leftism. Handsome, courageous, charismatic, an erudite Marxist, a riveting speaker and writer, a dedicated class warrior to the core, he was the peerless duce of the Italian Left. He looked like the head of any future Italian socialist government, elected or revolutionary.

In 1913, while still editor of Avanti! Utopia, a forum for controversial discussion among leftwing socialists. Like many such socialist journals founded in hope, it aimed to create a highly-educated cadre of revolutionaries, purged of dogmatic illusions, ready to seize the moment. The First World War began in August 1914 without Italian involvement. Should Italy join Britain and France against Germany and Austria, or stay out of the war? All the top leaders and intellectuals of the Socialist Party, Mussolini among them, were opposed to Italian participation.

In October and November 1914, Mussolini switched to a pro-war position. He resigned as editor of Avanti! To the Socialist Party leadership, this was a great betrayal, a sell-out to the whoremasters of the bourgeoisie, and Mussolini was expelled from the Party. Italy entered the war in May 1915, and Mussolini enlisted. In 1917 he was seriously wounded and hospitalized, emerging from the war the most popular of the pro-war socialists, a leader without a movement.

Post-war Italy was hag-ridden by civil strife and political violence. Sensing a revolutionary situation in the wake of Russia’s Bolshevik coup, the left organized strikes, factory occupations, riots, and political killings. The initiators were mostly men of the left: revolutionary syndicalists and former Marxists. They took with them some non-socialist nationalists and futurists, and recruited heavily among soldiers returning from the war, so that the bulk of rank-and-file Fascists had no leftwing background. Apart from its ardent nationalism and pro-war foreign policy, the Fascist program was a mixture of radical left, moderate left, democratic, and liberal measures, and for more than a year the new movement was not notably more violent than other socialist groupings. The democratic and liberal elements in Fascist preaching rapidly diminished and in 1922 Mussolini declared that “The world is turning to the right. The Socialists, who controlled the unions, called a general strike.